Hansen, E. G., Lüdeke-Freund, F., & Fichter, K. (2020). Circular Business Model Typology: Actor, Circular Strategy, and Service Level (IQD Research No. 1). Linz, Berlin, Oldenburg: Institute for Integrated Quality Design (IQD), Johannes Kepler University Linz, ESCP Europe, Borderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability, University of Oldenburg.
In this paper, we present a new take on circular business models which puts a) an actor’s position in the value cycle, b) the actor’s dominant circular strategy, and c) the service degree with which circular solutions are provided to the market at the core of business model design.Download